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26. Defeating the Axis in Africa and Europe














26a. Stopping the Axis in Africa | 26b. The Americans Arrive - The Allies Push the Axis out of North Africa | 26c. Stopping the Axis on the East Front - Stalingrad | 26d. The British and the Resistance | 26e. Allied Invasion of Sicily and Italy; The East Front | 26f. Air Power | 26g. D-Day, 6 June 1944 | 26h. End of the Third Reich | 26i. Germany Post-War





Continued from previous page, # 25, War in the Pacific

 
This is page # 26, Defeating the Axis in Africa and Europe, of Oliver's Site.  
 
 

This site has been moved here from its previous location

                  
           Oliver's Site
 
Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World (B. C./Pre-Columban) | 10. Greeks and Persians | 11. Rome ( - B. C. - A. D. 96) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome ( - A. D. 275) | 14. Rome and Byzantium (Nova Roma) | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (-1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. Second World War | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 37. | 42.
 
 
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26a. Stopping the Axis in Africa and the Mediterranean































 
 
 

The Allied bombing campaign in western Europe

 

The Air War over Europe

 

Turning the Tide

Episode 7 of the 2010/2011 British documentary series WW II in Colour

Allied strategic aerial fire bombing and Axis submarine intervention

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jecp9ZHbY10 (51:17)

 

Target for Tonight

1941 British movie recounts the step-by-step procedure of an RAF night bombing raid on Freishausen, Germany

Features Vickers Wellington medium bomber

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PDTLeFl8cXU  (47:47)

or

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=89NERX_CbUY  (43:31)

 

They asked for it!

Sir Arthur Harris

Sir Arthur Travers Harris ("Bomber Harris") (1892 - 1984), Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Air Force Bomber Command from 1942 to 1945

 

Bomber

Episode about Britain's aerial bombing campaign from the BBC's four-episode 2001 Battlefields series with Richard Holmes 

Precision raids (largely unsuccesful attacks against factories) and area bombing (targeting residential sections of big cities)

Ep. 3. (49:03)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E4uCuZG3mg8 

 

The Bombing War

2004 documentary discusses aerial bombing in WW2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C-lto2Xb3Kk  (1:36:10)



The Men Who Lit Up Germany

Episode 9 of the 2004 documentary series Heroes of World War II

Britain's Pathfinder Squadrons flew ahead of strategic bombers to mark targets with flares. (23:39)

https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x13ecy7 


Appointment in London

RAF Pathfinders in 1943

1953 British film with Dirk Bogarde (90 min., upload repeats film at end)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cnWkYaNivJc 



Lancaster

 

Lancaster Bomber

Target Germany

Episode from the 2000 documentary series Battle Stations 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4iua49gCA6A  (43:48)

 

Lancaster at War

1995 documentary 

On Timeline

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lMgZ62jyPiQ (48:37)


Lancaster at War

Documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ApticnroYfc (41:49)


Bomber Boys

2012 BBC documentary (1:29:01)

RAF pilot flies one of two surviving British Lancaster bombers

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mv5_JwVcVeg 


Lancaster Legend

Squadron Leader Jack Currie

Documentary (27:03)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2tH8OVAICjQ

 

Let's  Go  Slumming

Charlie and his Orchestra
 
Karl ("Charlie") Schwedler, singer

Lutz Templin, bandleader 

Lyrics by the Propagandaministerium

Broadcast from Berlin

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A-TfqDmVRMg

 

 

 

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The Italian Empire in 1939


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Map of the Italian Empire in 1939.



Italy unified as the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

Italy claimed Italian Eritrea in 1882.

Italian Somaliland, by treaties in 1888, 1889, 1894, 1906 (united in 1908) and 1925.

Concession of Tianjin in China in 1901.

Cyrenaica and Tripolitania taken from the Ottoman Empire (1911); Fezzan (1911); merged as Italian Libya in 1934; made a national province of Italy in 1938.

Dodocanese Islands, along the Aegean coast of Anatolia, taken from the Ottoman Empire in 1912.  

Invades Abyssinia in 1934 and occupies and annexes it to Italian East Africa in October 1935.

The Italian Empire (1936 - 1946) included all Italian possessions overseas.

Italy Invades Albania and annexes it to the Italian Empire in April 1939.




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Europe and North Africa in August 1939




Italy from the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1859 to today

Animated Map






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Related image

German invasion of France, May-June 1940.


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Daily News (New York), 10 June 1940


10 June 1940 -  As the Germans approach, the French government declares Paris an open city and leaves

10 June 1940 - Italy declares war on Britain and France


Related image

Daily Mirror

Image result for italy declares war on britain and france

Fitchburg Sentinel


Mussolini declares war on Britain and France

Rome, 10 June 1940

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RTEN06p6Rqk


Mussolini aligns with Hitler

Khan Academy 

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/euro-hist/mussolini-fascism/v/mussolini-aligns-with-hitler




Allied campaign in the Mediterranean

and

North Africa


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Mediterranean Theatre of Operations (map)

 

Mediterranean Mosaic

Episode 5 of the 1952 documentary series Victory At Sea with emphasis on naval warfare   

The Mediterranean in 1941 

The British colonies of Gibraltar and Malta, British convoys, the Germans bomb Malta 

(26:28)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIY66rBKI30&feature=relmfu

 

Mare Nostrum

Episode 8  of the 1952 documentary series Victory At Sea

Mussolini claims the Mediterranean as "Our Sea"   -   Mare Nostrum. Greeks and British defeat Mussolini's invasion of Greece. The Germans back up the Italians. The British defend the Suez Canal against Germany and Italy.

(26:26) 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nheAZmO58PY&feature=relmfu

 

The Battle for the Mediterranean

Episode from the Battlefield documentary series (2002)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cxd80CTDVa0

or

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=axjn5-Twtr8 

 

The Mediterranean and North Africa

Episode # 6 of 13 from the documentary series WW II in Colour

(51:17)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kPlUiFUGWrU 


 

Battle of Cape Matapan

27 - 29 March 1941

Southern tip of the Peloponnesian Peninsula of Greece

Royal Navy defeats Italian navy


Italian Fleet Smashed

March 1941

British Pathé newsreel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LSvsn9iz3K8

 

After the Battle

British Pathé newsreel after the Battle of Cape Matapan

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZriHdYXShOg

 

Brought to the Boil

Episode from the 1960 British documentary series War at Sea recounts events in the Mediterranean from 1940 to 1942, including the Battle of Cape Matapan.

(24:15) 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pbrn5dRbRs4



 
 
 

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The War in North Africa 

1940 - 1943


Africa in 1939


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Map of North and East Africa in 1940


10 June 1940 - Italy, which has been neutral in the war between its Axis partner Germany and the Allies Britain and France, declares war on Britain and France

Italian dictator Benito Mussolini orders Italian forces in the Italian Libya to invade and conquer Egypt, a British protectorate, capture the port of Alexandria, the Royal Navy's base in the western Mediterranean; the Suez Canal, which controls shipping between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and Port Said at the mouth of the Suez Canal.

talian forces in Italian East Africa (Abyssinia, Eritrea and Italian Somaliland) are to invade British Somaliland, a British protectorate, and the British colony of Kenya.

The island of Malta, a British colony and the Royal Navy's Mediterranean Fleet Headquarters, between Sicily and North Africa, would have to be neutralised.   


11 June 1940  -  Italian planes bomb Malta, beginning the Axis siege of the island.

13 June 1940 - Italian planes attack a British air base in Kenya.

14 June 1940  -  British troops in Egypt, under Gen. O'Connor, launch cross-border raids into Libya and harass Italian convoys by land. The Royal Air Force (RAF) harass by air and the Royal Navy by sea.

August 1940  -  Italians occupy British Somaliland and claim it as part of Italian East Africa.

Image result for italians capture british somaliland 1940 (map)


13 September 1940  -  Italian forces in Libya launch an invasion of Egypt. The Italians take the Egyptian town of Sidi Barrani and dig in there. 


Why did Mussolini invade Egypt in 1940?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKKzRkcAdFc



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Italy invades Greece

20 October 1940

Related image

Evening Standard, 1940


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Bergen Evening Standard


28 October 1940 - Italian forces in Albania invade Greece. The Greeks stop the Italians several miles inside Greece on 13 November. The Greeks push the Italians back to the border, continue north and are well inside Albania by 6 January 1941. Italian counter-attacks are repelled. With British assistance, the Greeks press northwards but not as far as planned. Neither side has advanced by April 1941.   


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British counter-offensive in North Africa

9/10 December 1940 - British attack Sidi Barrani. Italians surrender en masse on 10/11 December.

5 January 1941 -  Australians capture Bardia, Italian fortress on the Libyan-Egyptian frontier.  



Soldiers wearing greatcoats and steel helmets with fixed bayonets run past whitewashed buildings damaged by shellfire.

Australians enter Bardia on 4 January 1941.

 

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News Chronicle, London, 4 January 1941


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The Kingston Gleaner (Jamaica), 23 January 1941


22 January 1941  -  British and Australian forces capture the Italian port of Tobruk in eastern Libya.

The British can drive west and capture the port of Tripoli in western Libya.


The Battles of Bardia and Tobruk

Australians capture Bardia, 3 - 5 January 1941, and Tobruk, 21 - 22 January  

Documentary (1960)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3DtsrbbKZE



The Italians are defeated by the British in Egypt and Libya


The North African Campaign 1940 - 1941 
 
Part 1 of the documentary series Battlestorm

The Italians attack the British in Egypt and are repulsed.

The North African Campaign to the Battle of Beda Fomm
 
Operation Compass 1940 - 1941
 
British and dominion forces defeat the Italians
 

 

Mussolini asks Hitler for help

The Germans come to the aid of the Italians



Rommel

Image result for Germans charge Tobruk 1942

Generalleutnant Erwin Rommel (1891 - 1944), distinguished himself in combat in the First World War (1914 - 1918).


Erwin Rommel
 
Episode from The Great War series with Indy Neidel

Biography 
 


Commanding a tank division (7th Panzer Division) in 1940, Rommel led a fast advance force into Belgium and France in May and captured Cherbourg in June.

In February 1941, Rommel was given command of the German expeditionary force in North Africa (1941 - 1943), the Deutsche Afrika Korps (DAK).

12 - 14 February 1941 -  Rommel and the Afrika Korps arrived in Tripoli in western Libya to re-enforce the Italians.


Image result for rommel arrives in Tripoli, feb. 1941

Rommel, left, reviews troops in Tripoli with Italian General Italo Gariboldi, right, in February/March 1941.

Rommel and the Afrika Korps were to be under the command of Gariboldi.


   

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The Desert War 1940 - 1943

The see-saw war across the Sahara

Map shows the war in North Africa, from December 1940 to January 1943, in brief:

Italian dictator Benito Mussolini ordered the Italian invasion of Egypt from Libya (June 1940).

Italian Marchal Rodolfo Graziani sent Italian forces into Egypt on 9 Sept. 1940.

General Archibald Wavell, Commander-in-Chief of British forces in the Middle East, ordered Generals O'Connor and Gott, commanding British forces in Egypt, to push the Italians out of Egypt. The British pushed the Italians across Libya to El Agheila (Operation Compass, 9 Dec. 1940 - Feb. 1941).

German Lt.-Gen. Erwin Rommel and the Afrika Korps arrived in the Libyan port of Tripoli (Feb. 1941) and launched an offensive, pushing the British back into Egypt (Mar. to May 1941). The Libyan port of Tobruk remained in British hands, under siege by the Germans and Italians.  

British troops under Gen. Claude Auchinleck, Commander-in-Chief of British forces in the Middle East, forced Rommel back to El Agheila (Nov. 1941 - Jan. 1942).

Rommel launched a second offensive in late Jan. 1942, captured Tobruk and pushed the British out of Libya and across Egypt to within striking distance of the Royal Navy's base in Alexandria and Egypt's capital, Cairo.

Auchinleck held Rommel at El Alamein, 60 miles from Cairo (July 1942).

British Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery, commanding British forces in Egypt, forced Rommel out of Egypt and Libya(Oct. 1942 - Jan. 1943).     


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24 March 1941 - Rommel advances


The Desert Fox

Related image



Rommel ignored and disobeyed orders from the German High Command to follow the orders of Italian commanders.

Rommel ignored and disobeyed orders from Italian commanders to maintain a defensive posture or pursue a slow offensive.

Rommel pushed British forces out of Cyrenaica and back into Egypt by 8 April 1941.


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The three provinces of Libya.



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Map shows Rommel's drive to Tobruk in 1941.  


British forces held onto the Libyan port of Tobruk.

Rommel placed Tobruk under siege on 10/11 April.  

Bardia was retaken by the Axis.


If the Germans pushed farther east into Egypt they could seize the Royal Navy base of Alexandria.
 
Continuing east, the Germans could seize the city of Cairo on the Nile River.
 
Farther to the east was the Suez Canal, which controlled shipping between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
 
East of Suez, the Germans could seize the oil fields of the Near East. 



Image result for rommel drives across libya into egypt 1941

  
Rommel's First Battle in the North African Campaign
 
Part 2 of the documentary series Battlestorm
 
From Rommel's arrival in Libya to the Battle of Tobruk in 1941.
 
Rommel overcomes British and Australian forces at Mersa Brega and pushes them out of Libya and back into Egypt.
 
But the British and Australians hold onto the port of Tobruk.
 
 


-------------------


 

Italians lose East Africa


Feb. 1941  -  British troops push Italians out of the Sudan, Kenya and British Somaliland.

6 April 1941  -  British troops occupy Addis Ababa, capital of Abyssinia. Italians surrender.

6 May 1941  -  Haile Selassie, Emperor of Abyssinia, returns to Addis Ababa.


Related image

Haile Selassie greets British Lt.-Gen. Alan Cunningham, Commander of the British Expeditionary Forces, at his palace in Addis Ababa in June 1941.


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Germans invade Greece and Yugoslavia

6 April 1941


The Germans help the Italians  


Image result for germans and italians invade greece and yugoslavia - newspapers

News Chronicle


Image result for germans and italians invade greece and yugoslavia - newspapers

New York Times


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The Axis Siege of Tobruk

Libyan Port

10 April   -   27 November 1941


Image result for the siege of tobruk 1941


9/10 April - Axis troops begin Siege of Tobruk held by Australian, British, Indian and Free French forces. The siege lasts 240-plus days.


Related image

British troops charge Axis position in Tobruk in April 1941.

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Australian troops on patrol through barbed wire on Tobruk's outer defenses on 30 April 1941.


30 April - Germans occupy a sixth of Tobruk

16 May - Italians force Australians in Tobruk to withdraw

15 - 17 June 1941  -  Operation Battleaxe - British attempt to relieve Tobruk. The attack is repulsed.


Operation Battleaxe

Battle Storm

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqGo57Drs24 


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Greeks surrender to Germans and Italians

April 1941


Image result for greeks surrender to germans , april 1941 - newspaper

The Honolulu Advertiser


Germans invade Crete

20 May 1941


Image result for nazis invade crete 1941 - newspapers

Minneapolis Star Journal


Image result for nazis invade crete 1941 - newspaper

Chippewa Herald-Telegram


Image result for germans invade crete may 1941 - newspaper

Daily News


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Germans invade Soviet Union

June 1941


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The Boston Herald


Image result for germany invades soviet union 1941 - newspapers

The Milwaukee Journal


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Axis advances from 1939 to December 1941


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5 July 1941  -  Gen. Claude Auchinleck, Commander-in-Chief India, trades commands with Wavell. Auchinleck is C-I-C of Middle East Command. Wavell is C-I-C India.

Western Desert Force renamed Eighth Army.


18 September 1941 -  Germans bomb Cairo by air.


Image result for rommel drives across libya into egypt 1941

A German dive-bomber, a Junkers ju 87, bombs a British supply depot near Tobruk in October 1941.


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British troops defend Tobruk, 11 November 1941


Tobruk

Our Desert Stronghold

British Pathé newsreel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_FjQjX6Dxw


Rommel planned an attack on Tobruk and flew to Rome in early November to persuade the Italians to back it. The Italians agreed and the attack was set for 23 November.  



British counter-offensive


18 November 1941 -  Auchinleck launches Operation Crusader, an offensive to destroy Axis forces and relieve Tobruk.

Rommel returns to Africa.


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The Oregon Statesman, Salem, Oregon, 21 November 1941


27 November - New Zealanders reach Tobruk. 


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Gen. Auchinleck on cover of Time magazine, 1 December 1941 


9 December - British, Indian, New Zealand and South African troops relieve the siege of Tobruk.

Rommel withdraws to Gazala. 

16 December - Rommel orders westward withdrawal from the Gazala line


Our Libya Offensive

British Pathé newsreel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ExPC1hguFOM


Rommel on the Run

British Pathé newsreel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6a0T9jwQ900


31 December - Rommel falls back to El Agheila, giving up all ground gained during the year.


Auckinleck inspects troops

British Pathé silent film footage (1941)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qhx4z4jGroA


31 Dec. 1941 - 2 January 1942  -  South Africans recapture Bardia, take 8,000 Italian prisoners.


The Fall of Bardia

British Pathe 1942

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDeNAkd6gYM


Operation Crusader

Battle Storm

All 15 episodes in one upload 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ji7MZYB4dho 


1. Churchill

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_pBfn6UVktY

2. The Eighth Army

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxQ7lJRWtfQ

3. The Plan

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iRmyqd6bi0I

4. Franz Halder and Rommel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYO0seYRBYM


The Axis Order of Battle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LwPJWb2BUj4

The British Order of Battle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QCNDEoRDp6I 


5. Three Preliminary Operations: Rommel's Raid into Egypt, Attempt to assassinate Rommel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzdjBwxippE

6. The Battle Begins

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gsJF78-8Egk

7. Dancing Panzer, Hidden Rommel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dq4GMAWGjYY

8. The Panzers Strike

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yW4XYkejL0

9. Sunday of the Dead

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PYVPYdufcVM

10. Dash to the Wire

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKKNH4hdT9k

11. The End of Cunningham

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WpDPSHlx5U4

12. The Infantry Battle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbKOFjgzxJg

13. New Zealand's Final Stand

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWUaoleJKIo

14. Rommel Retreats

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPWeGa0MU0I

15. The End  -  Accidental Victory  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5mRaotz1rKU


Colour Film Footage of Operation Crusader

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQ0R4Qivy-g


Operation Flipper

Commandos attempt to kill Rommel.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=smpPT_hyHQg


ANZAC

1942 Australian documentary about the German Siege of Tobruk in 1941 

ANZAC is an acronym for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRbebG7RlSo

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_aACrmRkGcw\

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rCBltOnlhOo

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbf8wZQ2SiQ

 

Tobruk

Episode from a documentary series Battleline

The view of the siege from both sides

(3 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5GVVrwSSfPg

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lBkB0jJzAd8

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHvnDkXNcwU

 

General Smuts at the Front

South African Prime Minister in North Africa 1941

British Pathé

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdbTV15TQyk

 

The Rats of Tobruk

Australian documentary

2 clips (parts 1 and 2 of 10)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BgQjuPUL5vY

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WhKInFO1gm4

 

The Siege of Tobruk

British Army Film Unit (AFU) documentary (16:10)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uwde38e89Ts



The Rats of Tobruk

Advertisement for 1944 Australian movie

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9jGz0bafYs

 

Tobruk

Episode from the documentary series Desert War

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CmlXzXRbdTs

 

Czechs defend Tobruk

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hj-Y0lA0Gp0

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1k6zWMOZMcE

 

Poles defend Tobruk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GYeSZjqsHxI

 



Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf

Charlie and his Orchestra

Karl ("Charlie") Schwedler, singer

Lutz Templin, bandleader

Lyrics by the Propagandaministerium

Broadcast from Berlin


 
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The Americans enter the war

December 1941



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The Denver Post (Denver, Colorado)




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Daily News



 Related image

Journal American



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San Francisco Examiner



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The High Point Enterprise




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Santa Ana Register




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Churchill in Washington

 
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Winston Churchill addresses joint-session of the U. S. Congress on 26 December 1941.




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Winston Churchill's address to Joint Session of U. S. Congress

26 December 1941

Excerpts

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R95rjk_nEI8

Excerpts (longer)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYDLTDL-YD8

Entire address (audio only)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fhUXdolcIPQ

 

Churchill and Roosevelt
 
May 1940 – April 1942
 
Episode 2 of 4 of the 2007 documentary series Warlords

By Timeline

 
or


In 5 clips:
 
 

 

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I Can't Give You Anything But Love

Charlie and his Orchestra

Karl ("Charlie") Schwedler, singer

Lutz Templin, bandleader

Lyrics by the Propagandaministerium

Broadcast from Berlin

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=beiHx6WRheE

 

On the Sentimental Side

Charlie and his Orchestra

Karl ("Charlie") Schwedler, singer

Lutz Templin, bandleader

Lyrics by the the Propagandaministerium

Broadcast from Berlin

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ASifDNVE6d0

 
 
 

 
 
 
--------------



21 January 1942  -  Rommel launches his second offensive


Falling back to El Agheila on 31 December 1941, Rommel quickly resupplied, with more men and tanks, and went back on the offensive.


Rommel forces the British out of Benghazi and back to Gazala.

 
Image result for rommel's Panzer Mk III in his first offensive in libya

The Panzer MK III, the main German tank in North Africa, in February 1942.


A German MKIII tank advancing along with infantry in North Africa.

The Panzer MK III


Image result for mechanic guides british pilot through Libyan sandstorm, 1942

A mechanic, sitting on the wing of a Kitty Hawk fighter plane, directs the British pilot through a sandstorm in Libya on 2 April 1942.

 
 
 
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The Battle of Gazala 

26 May - 21 June 1942 

Related image

La Cyrénaique en 1940


Image result for Axis capture of Tobruk - June 1942 - animated map

The Axis Plan, decided in Berlin, on 1 May: Feign an attack from the west in the north, towards Gazala; go around the heavily mined Gazala Line to the south, at Bir Hakeim; drive north and attack the Allies from behind, from the east; drive north and capture Tobruk. Then drive into Egypt.  



26 May 1942  -  Axis forces attack the Gazala Line (west of Tobruk), towards Gazala in the north, and strike Bir Hakheim in the south.
 
       
Auckinleck Up Front

British Pathé film footage (1942)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_sVPVUCNLc8 


Map of the battle 24 - 27 May  



Rommel in North Africa by KraljAleksandar
Rommel west of Tobruk



Image result for battle of Gazala and Axis capture of Tobruk 1942


Map of the battle 26 May - 1 June

 
The first Americans in a land battle against the Germans

 
 Image result for major henry cabot lodge II at the battle of gazala

U. S. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge II of Massachusetts (Republican), a major in the U. S. Army 1st Armored Division, under British command, led a squadron of tanks at the Battle of Gazala on 11 June 1942.



                                

Bir Hakeim

Southern end of the Gazala Line


The Battle of Bir Hakeim, Libya

26 May - 11 June 1942


26 May 1942  -  Axis forces attack the heavily mined Gazala Line, west of Tobruk, from Gazala in the north to Bir Hakeim in the south. The Axis attack Bir Hakeim. The Axis go around it.




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Bir Hakeim


Free French Foreign Legionnairs.jpg

The French Foreign Legion in Tobruk charge German positions on 12 June 1942.  


The Battle of Bir Hakeim

In French with English sub-titles

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c_M-j67PJdM

 

Battle of Bir Hakeim

Excerpt from an episode of the documentary series Battlefield

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDtVotgbbTI 



La bataille de Bir Hakeim

Au cœur de l'Histoire

Franck Ferrand avec Jean-Mathieu Boris, vétéran de la bataille, et François Broche, journaliste et historien

70e anniversaire de Bir-Hakeim (2012)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnivLXgXmwU 


La bataille de Bir Hakeim en 1942

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0NBzdjJ1zY     (Removed )

 

1943 Bir Hakeim - un an apres

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EY8ZeTvz9nM   

 

La bataille de Bir Hakeim (1942) 

2000 ans d'histoire  -  Seconde guerre mondiale

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QDGclIfeEc0


ou en deux parties:

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-87fImiAlc

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trQ51q2bXkQ


La bataille de Bir Hakeim 1942

Quand la France renaît 

Documentaire

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ThflfAV6hk

ou

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ROgUmDwluFk

 


Bir Hakeim was evacuated on 11 June.



Deutsche Afrika Korps

Newsreel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqSiwQ0Af2I

 




13 June - Axis forces defeat British armoured divisions


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Rommel surveys Tobruk.


Tobruk falls to the Axis

21 June 1942 



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The Honolulu Advertiser, 22 June 1942


21 June 1942  -  Axis capture Tobruk

 
 
Tobruk Fällt

Weltspiegel

Silent film



Italian newsreel
 


 
 
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32,000 to 33,000 British soldiers surrender to Germans at Tobruk on 21 June 1942.  


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British prisoners from Tobruk.


The Axis drove east.

The Axis recaptured Bardia in June 1942.


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You're the Top

Charlie and his Orchestra

Karl ("Charlie") Schwedler, singer
 
Lutz Templin, bandleader

Lyrics by the Propagandaministerium

Broadcast from Berlin

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8-6DYVhDeI

 

 

 
 
 

 

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The British and allied troops retreated east into Egypt, dug in at El Alamein, sixty miles west of Cairo, and laid a long field of mines north-south.

The Axis pushed east into Egypt and stopped at El Alamein.    


 Image result for Rommel Halted - 1942 - newspaper

San Francisco Chronicle, 4 July 1942 



           First Battle of El Alamein

                         1 - 27 July 1942

British forces under Gen. Auchinleck stop the Axis eastward advance on Alexandria, Cairo and the Suez Canal.

Sixty miles from Cairo.

 

The Theatre of Operations in Europe and North Africa


Map of Egypt


Map of Egypt's Western Desert


Some key points of the Desert War in 1941 and 1942

 

DEUTSCHES AFRIKA KORPS HYMNE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zNz8AmLcI9g

 

Panzerlied

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEIm3pe5wbA



 

1915
 
1. Vor der Kaserne
Vor dem großen Tor
Stand eine Laterne
Und steht sie noch davor
So woll'n wir uns da wieder seh'n
Bei der Laterne wollen wir steh'n
|: Wie einst Lili Marleen. :|

2. Unsere beide Schatten
Sah'n wie einer aus
Daß wir so lieb uns hatten
Das sah man gleich daraus
Und alle Leute soll'n es seh'n
Wenn wir bei der Laterne steh'n
|: Wie einst Lili Marleen. :|

3. Schon rief der Posten,
Sie blasen Zapfenstreich
Das kann drei Tage kosten
Kam'rad, ich komm sogleich
Da sagten wir auf Wiedersehen
Wie gerne wollt ich mit dir geh'n
|: Mit dir Lili Marleen. :|

4. Deine Schritte kennt sie,
Deinen zieren Gang
Alle Abend brennt sie,
Doch mich vergaß sie lang
Und sollte mir ein Leids gescheh'n
Wer wird bei der Laterne stehen
|: Mit dir Lili Marleen? :|

5. Aus dem stillen Raume,
Aus der Erde Grund
Hebt mich wie im Traume
Dein verliebter Mund
Wenn sich die späten Nebel drehn
Werd' ich bei der Laterne steh'n
|: Wie einst Lili Marleen. :|

 

Lili Marleen

Lale Andersen (1938/1939)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wh4qe0Hp6RU

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6o_HxJJ7ZNY

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8btnYYDbkqQ

 

Lili Marlene

Marlene Dietrich

1944 and/or 1945

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q56QzGcAKZc

and

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DkyOGDbEWA

in English:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gBi5j7yPwd0

Excerpt from Judgement at Nuremberg (1961) dubbed in Italian

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qAq90-tClBE

 

The True Story of Lili Marlene

British film (1944)

(21 minutes)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uAJnyaxkyDc

Fist ten minutes only:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VixYaWGYReo

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QiK9_ZjbczQ


In Italian

Carlo Buti

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fbyeKX2JBqI



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British soldiers defend positions at El Alamein, 17 July 1942 



 

General Sir Claude Auchinleck, Commander-in-Chief of British armed forces in the Middle East from June 1941 to August 1942, stopped Rommel's advance at El Alamein in July 1942.

Photo on 31 July 1942 by Lt Palmer, No 1 Army Film & Photographic Unit (from the collection of the Imperial War Museum) 


All Roads to Al Alamein

British Pathé newsreel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rCXzJ85_kQI

 

Battle of Egypt

British Pathé newsreel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wGay9ToEuW4

 

27th July 1942

Allies halt the Axis advance in the First Battle of El Alamein

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FD1wIFOdy6w

 

Africa

August 1942

Newsreel

German advance stopped

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9YLvAghfHKA



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Winston Churchill in El Alamein on 19 August 1942.


Premier in the Middle East

British Pathé newsreel

Churchill visits Egypt

4 - 10 August 1942

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6elnte_OTDw

 


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Image result for the axis powers in 1942


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Maps showing the Axis Powers in 1942
 

 
World Ablaze (1941 - 1942)

Episode 4 of the colourised 2009 French documentary series Apocalypse   -  The Second World War in HD 

- Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Battle of Midway (first defeat for the Japanese), Guadalcanal (the Americans begin to push back the Japanese)

- Operation Fall Blau (1942 German offensive across the southern Soviet Union; Germans take Stalingrad)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5YQW6hn3CsM  (47 min.)

or with American narrator and captions 

Removed

or in French as

La deuxieme guerre mondiale

L'embrasement 1941 - 1942

Episode 4 (52:00)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4tk1MbyXEBI

 

The World at War

1942  U. S. government documentary film

From Pearl Harbour in December 1941 to the summer of 1942 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKXHqrKPZUE (43:19)

 

 


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British take Madagascar from French

May - November 1942

The British, alarmed by the presence of Japanese submarines in the Indian Ocean and the threat they posed to British shipping, took the port of Diego Suarez in Madagascar from the Vichy French.

In the next two months, the Japanese sank a British ship in Diego Suarez and 23 British supply ships bound for British forces in Egypt in the Indian Ocean.

So, with the Free French of Charles de Gaulle, the British took Madagascar's capital and occupied the entire country.

 

Image result for madagascar - Front page of May 5, 1942 American newspaper

The Oregon Statesman (Salem, Oregon), 5 May 1942 



Image result for madagascar - Front page of May 7, 1942 American newspaper

Bergen Evening Record, Hackensack, New Jersey, 7 May 1942



Map of Madagascar and Indian Ocean sea lanes threatened by Japan.  Axis controlled territory shown in black.  



 

Map of British amphibious operations in the Second World War.

 

The Battle of Madagascar

BBC History Magazine podcast

6 September 2012

Click here:

BBC History Magazine podcast about the Battle of Madagascar

 
 
The Battle of Diego Suarez
 
 
La Bataille de Diego Suarez
 
Extrait du documentaire D'une guerre à l'autre diffusé sur RFO le 11/11/2005
 
 
 
 
Madagascar   -   First Pictures
 
The Voice of Britain
 
British Pathe Gazette Special
 
 
 
 
British in Madagascar
 
British Pathe (September 1942)
 
 
 
 
Madagascar
 
A Brief Description of a Little Known Island that is World Headline News Today
 
African Mirror
 
British Pathe (1942)
 
 
 
 
The Battle of Madagascar
 
Blog
 
 
 
Japanese midget submarines off Madagascar
 
pic goes here
 
 
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German ships attack American ships off the U. S. east coast
 
Location of sunken WW2 German submarines
 
 

The Mystery of U-166
 
2014 National Geographic documentary about the exploration of a German submarine sunk in the Gulf of Mexico in July 1942
 
 
 
 
 
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Military Aid to Soviet Union
 
 
24 of 35 ships of a British-American Arctic Convoy to Soviet Union sunk by German submarines and bombers
 
July 4, 1942
 
Convoy ships were ordered to scatter to minimise loss.
 
 
Related image
Typical Convoy Diagram
 
 
 
Image result for Arctic Convoy PQ 17 formation
Track of PQ-17 and positions of ships sunk
 
 
 
PQ-17
 
An Arctic Convoy Disaster
 
BBC documentary (2014) (58:33)
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Americans join air war over Europe

17 August 1942


 U. S. Eighth Air Force bombing targets from August 1942 to June 1943


American B-17Es, escorted by British Spitfires, on the first US bombing mission in the European war, to bomb railroad yards in Rouen-Sotteville, Normandy on 17 August 1942

 

Mission Accomplished:

The Story of the Flying Fortress

1942 documentary film of the Rouen raid

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7L1n2iQEO8A


 

B-17E

 

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

Episode from the documentary series Great Planes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfsOW0s0RGU